Notes and Sources

Notes and Sources

[1] To emphasize both individual and collective leadership, this discussion uses the term “leadership” rather than individual “leaders,” except when referring to the internal explorations that take place inside individuals.
[2] Several leadership researchers have come up with similar-but-different ways of describing leadership. I discovered these after developing this model and experienced the alignment as validating and inspiring. For example, Amy Edmondson names three things leaders need to do: envision, engage, and enroll. Through the DAC model, Drath, et al names Direction, Alignment, and Commitment as the cornerstones of leadership.
[3] Each has an internal (within self) expression and an external (outside of self) expression.

  • Seeing: internal = thoughts, ideas, mindsets; external = strategy
  • Doing: internal = physiological response; external = actions
  • Connecting: internal = feelings, emotions; external = relationships, culture
  • Being: internal = internal state, essential core; external = presence, stance, persona

[4] I first heard this idea from Michele LaCroix, who described how two married individuals come together to form a third entity, the marriage. The marriage is derivative of the individuals and at the same time is unique.
[5] Collaborative cultures take advantage of this dynamic, by enrolling the best each individual has to offer, in service of creating the most generative, productive collective capability. By supporting specific mindsets, practices, and structures, such a collaborative culture purposefully, powerfully harnesses both the individual and collective leadership capacity.
[6] Action Design evaluates the results of a conversation by reflecting on three kinds of results: task, relationship and learning. Task: What progress was made against the immediate task at hand? What is the level of satisfaction with and commitment to the outcomes? Relationship: Will this conversation build or erode important relationships over time? What is the impact of the interaction on those involved? Learning: Are both parties bringing the full breadth of their knowledge, experience and perspectives to the conversation? Are problems, conflicts or mistakes surfaced? Are root causes explored? Are both parties learning so the issue is resolved or the mistake is not made again?
[7] I am interested in developing leaders who are seeking positive influence in their communities and the broader world. I believe that each of has a higher purpose and is capable of making the world a better place by developing their best selves in alignment with this higher purpose. Borrowing from Buddhism, moral leadership requires “right” alignment of vision, will/motivation, use of power, responsibility, and competition:

  • Right Vision is built on “strong ideas, loosely held” that are refined by ongoing learning, fueled by intense curiosity vs. seeing what you want to see and engaging in selective obliviousness.
  • Right Will / Motivation is fueled by deep inner sense of knowing, not others’ approval, money, possessions, status, fame, etc.
  • Right Use of Power involves being a conduit of best and highest purpose/good, not exerting control to achieve a tightly held set of self-serving outcomes. It does not involve the use of force to take what you want.
  • Right Responsibility entails taking responsibility for yourself (“be the change”) and being responsible to others vs. taking responsibility for the experience of others.
  • Right Competition is fair and not ruthless.

[8] Does effective leadership call for “ruthless” behavior, at times? This is a provocative question, indeed. At my recent Harvard Business School reunion, Professor David Yoffie, the Max and Doris Starr Professor of International Business Administration, argued that great leadership requires ruthlessness, at times. He compared Bill Gates, Andy Grove, and Steve Jobs on several dimensions, making a side note that all three were willing to be ruthless, when necessary. I disagree with Yoffie. Meriam Webster defines ruthless is “having no pity, merciless, cruel.” The ethical nexus of morality and performance sit at this very intersection where leaders must make high-stakes, make-or-break competitive decisions, especially in fast-changing, hyper-competitive industries. Ethical leadership requires resisting ruthless behavior.
[9] I first heard this term from Doug Silsbee, who named three: seeing, doing, being.
[10] This model is built on the backs of giants. Several esteemed leadership authors have identified three out of these four competencies as cornerstones to leadership. David Kantor names three critical “Communication Domains” as Meaning – the language of ideas, purpose; Power – the language of action; and Affect – the language of human connection. Doug Silsbee identifies three meta competencies: seeing, being and doing. My contribution is to consider the four together, as separate components that also intersect synergistically in a dynamic leadership system, both at the individual and collective levels.
[11] Neurologist Daniel Siegel writes of “The Triangle of Well-being,” which, from a neuro-psychological perspective, also reflects these meta competencies. He says,

Regulation (mind) entails the monitoring and modifying of the flow of energy and information. Sharing (relationships) is the exchange of the energy and information between two or more people. The mechanism (brain) is the structural means through which the energy and information flow occurs within the body. The triangle depicts one system, the system of energy and information flow, as it passes through the mechanism of the body (brain), is shared (relationships) and is regulated (mind).

Siegel’s description of regulation through the mind, sharing in relationships, and the mechanism of the brain describe the neuro biochemistry behind the meta competencies of seeing, connecting, and doing, respectively. His idea of mindsight, discussed later, describes the fourth meta competencies of being.
[12]Doug Silsbee.
[13] David Kantor argues that the popularized notion of the “bigger than life, charismatic leader” is out dated and unrealistic in today’s fast-paced, rapidly changing world. He argues that it is more powerful to optimize “leadership systems” that are made up of a collection of leaders, with different strengths. In varying contexts, where varying strengths are needed, a healthy, powerful leadership system has the culture and norms to allow the leader with the needed strength to step to the fore and lead, as the situation requires.
[14] John J. Prendergast, In Touch: How to Tune In to the Inner Guidance of Your Body and Trust Yourself (Boulder: Sounds True, 2015), xvi, xix.
[15] Many wisdom traditions advocate for meditation practices as a way to quiet an over-active mind (i.e., “monkey mind”). Eckhart Tolle warns of the dangers of excessive thinking. He writes,

You already have access to a …timeless state of intense conscious presence in the Now. …You just can’t feel it because your mind is making too much noise. …The greatest obstacle to experiencing this reality … is identification with your mind, which causes thought to become compulsive. …This incessant mental noise prevents you from finding that realm of inner stillness that is inseparable from Being. …Enlightenment… at one with Being…is the end of the dreadful enslavement to incessant thinking. …compulsive thinking is actually an addiction. …you derive your sense of self from the content and activity of your mind…we may call this a phantom of the ego…a false self, created by unconscious identification with the mind. … The present moment holds the key to liberation. But you cannot find the present moment as long as you are your mind. …The mind, to ensure that it remains in control, seeks continuously to cover up the present moment with past and future, and so, as the vitality and infinite creative potential of Being, which is inseparable from the Now, becomes covered up by time, your true nature becomes obscured by the mind.

Eckhart Tolle, The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment. (Van Couver, B.C., Canada and Novato, CA: Namaste Publishing and New World Library, 1999) 8, 6, 14, 15, 22, 23, 34.
[16] This term was coined by existential psychologist John Welwood. Toward a Psychology of Awakening.
[17] Doug Silsbee advocates that in today’s world, our ability to be aware of our own meaning-making is critical, because the external context is shifting more rapidly than ever and our ability to succeed, and even survive, is dependent on our agility related to being aware of and adapting our meaning making.
[18] Timothy Wilson, Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious (Cambridge, MA: President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2002).
[19] Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky described the simplifying shortcuts of intuitive thinking and explained some 20 biases as manifestations of these heuristics in “Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” Daniel Kahneman, Thinking Fast and Slow (Canada: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1994), 8.
[20] Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. (Image Books, 2006), 175.
[21] Richard Strozzi Heckler identifies the following “Sites of Shaping:” Individual; Family/Intimate Network; Community; Institution; Social Norms/ Historical Forces; Spirit/Landscape. These could be considered the particularly potent contexts in which our mental models are shaped.
[22] Consider these additional contributors to what we notice: Narratives (i.e., the stories we tell ourselves to make sense of our experiences); Beliefs (i.e., our firmly held opinions or convictions); Assumptions (i.e., something we accept as true or certain to happen, without proof); Interpretations (i.e., an explanation of the meaning of something); Values (i.e., our principles or standards of behavior; our judgement of what is important in life); Competencies (our characteristics, skills, knowledge); Sources of Motivation (i.e., achievement, power, affiliation, etc.) ; “Imprints” (i.e., residual impressions from prior interactions) ; Stance (i.e., the intellectual or emotional attitude, position or approach we adopt in a given situation) as well as the external context (e.g., socio-political context; market / industry context; organizational context; team / group context; interaction context, etc.)
[25] Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory. Wikipedia.
[29] Related: Alice Boyes, "50 Common Cognitive Distortions” The Anxiety Toolkit: Strategies for Fine-Tuning Your Mind and Moving Past Your Stuck Points (Little, Brown Book Club, 2016).
[30] Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (University of Chicago Press, 1996), 111.
[31] Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, 176.
[32] Bob Putnam, Phil McArthur, Diana Smith.
[33] Jennifer Garvey Berger and Doug Silbee.
[34] James. E. Ryan, Wait, What? And Life’s Other Essential Questions (Harper One, 2017), 20.
[35] "Why We Make Bad Decisions"New York Times Opinion. Oct. 19, 2013
[36] This term was coined by Iris Bagwell.
[43] Silsbee, Siegel.
[44] The primary structures within the limbic system include the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus. The amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences. The limbic system supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. Wikipedia.
[45] Craig Lambert, The Psyche on Automatic: Amy Cuddy on snap judgements, stereotypes, and the postures of power (Harvard Magazine. November-December 2010), 51.
[46] Daniel Goleman coined this phrase and defines emotional intelligence skills to include: Self-awareness—knowing one’s strengths, weaknesses, drives, values, and impact on others; Self-regulation—controlling or redirecting disruptive impulses and moods; Motivation—relishing achievement for its own sake; Empathy—understanding other people’s emotional makeup; Social skill—building rapport with others.
[47] Amanda Blake (author of Your Body is Your Brain.) illuminates social-emotional learning in a 2x2 matrix, with the vertical dimensions of Emotional Intelligence (self) and Social Intelligence (other) and the horizontal dimensions of Awareness and Action.
[48] Mark Manson, Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life. (Harper, 2016), 33-34. “Emotions are feedback mechanisms telling us that something is either likely right or likely wrong for us…, biological signposts. Negative emotions are a call to action…. Positive emotions are rewards for taking the proper action….”
[49] Research from the Center for Creative Leadership shows that executives with high empathy are better able to keep employees engaged, while employees with empathy provide customers with the very best experience. Find research.
[50] Research from The University of Toronto Rotman School of Management shows that being able to read and mobilize informal networks needed to catalyze change matters more than position in the organizational hierarchy in being a “change maker.”
[51] 4 Domains and 12 Competencies of EI (Daniel Goleman post: Emotionally Intelligent: How Competent Are You? (9/17/16) provides descriptions of 12 Emotional Intelligence Competencies.)
[52] Chip Heath and Dan Heath, Switch: How to Change Things When Change is Hard. (Crown Business, 2010), 7. Brought to my attention and brilliantly brought to life by Karen Dawson and Julie Huffaker of DeeperFunner Change.
[53] Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom. (Basic Books, 2006), 17.
[54] Heath and Heath, Switch, 7.
[55] Read Elephant in the Room: How Relationships Make or Break the Success of Leaders and Organizations by Diana for brilliant insight into how to effectively “Lead Through Relationships.”
[57] Diana writes in Changing Culture Change (Reflections The SOL Journal on Knowledge, Learning, Change. Volume 12, No 1.) about the fundamental connection between relationships and culture: “Relationships, not individual leaders alone, shape and reshape the invisible assumptions that lie at the core of a firm’s culture. Relationships hold the power to reinforce or transform the cultural assumptions that give rise to outdated hierarchical, functional cultures disconnected from the marketplace.”
[58] Amy Edmondson distinguished between trust and psychological safety, two closely related concepts. Psychological safety speaks specifically to an in-the-moment feeling of the ability to speak up without repercussions to your interpersonal status, whereas trust is a longer-term sense of whether others are predictable, reliable and will act with your best interests in mind. Thus, while the concepts are related, psychological safety pertains to expectations about immediate interpersonal consequences, whereas trust describes an expectation about what an individual or organization can be counted on to do in a future moment. Amy Edmondson, The Fearless Organization: Creating Psychological Safety in the Workplace for Learning, Innovation, and Growth (Wiley, 2019).
[59] “Trust is the most important ingredient in any relationship, for the simple reason that without trust, the relationship doesn’t actually mean anything. A person could tell you that she loves you, wants to be with you, would give up everything for you, but if you don’t trust her, you get no benefit from those statements.” Manson, *Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fck, 183.
[60] In The Speed of Trust, Stephen Covey identifies four cores of credibility: Integrity: Are you congruent? Intent: What is your agenda? Capabilities: Are you relevant? Results: What is your track record? He also identifies 13 Behaviors that Build Relationship Trust: Talk Straight; Demonstrate Respect; Create Transparency; Right Wrongs; Show Loyalty; Deliver Results; Get Better; Confront Reality; Clarify Expectations; Practice Accountability; Listen First; Keep Commitments; Extend Trust. Stephen M.R. Covey, The Speed of Trust: The One Thing That Changes Everything (Free Press, 2008).
[61] Patrick Lencioni, Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Field Guide for Leaders, Managers, and Facilitators (Jossey-Bass, 2005)Page 7.
[62] Paul J. Zak, Harvard Business Review. The Neuroscience of Trust. Jan-Feb 2017. Page 85.
[63] Zak names eight management behaviors that foster trust in the workplace: recognizing excellence; inducing ‘challenge stress;’ giving people discretion in how they do their work; enabling job crafting; sharing information broadly; intentionally building relationships; and facilitating whole-person growth.
[64] Amy conducted a study of 51 work teams in a manufacturing company, measuring antecedent, process, and outcome variables, and showed that team psychological safety is associated with learning behavior and shapes team performance. Psychological safety can be measured using a 24-item measure, called the Team Learning and Psychological Safety Survey. Amy Edmondson, Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams Administrative Science Quarterly, 1999.
[65] Amy Edmondson. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Volume 27, Issue 7. November 2006. Pages 941–966.
[66] Google’s People Operations conducted 200+ interviews of Google employees and analyzed 250+ attributes of 180+ active Google teams to understand the underlying drivers of team effectiveness. They discovered that who is on the team matters less than how the team members interact, structure their work, and view their contributions. The five key dynamics that set successful teams apart included: Psychological safety (can we take risks on this team without feeling insecure or embarrassed?); Dependability (Can we count on each other to do high quality work on time?); structure and clarity (Are goals, roles and execution plans on our teams clear?); Meaning of work (Are we working on something that is personally important for each of us?); Impact of our work (Do we fundamentally believe that the work we’re doing matters?). ( See Appendices for an illustration of how these team effectiveness dynamics map to the pillars of the Venn diagram.
[67] Many leadership experts have dedicated their lives to this aspect of leadership, producing countless seminal books and training approaches, because of its strong leverage in generating better outcomes: Chris Argyris, Donald Schon, Action Design (Bob Putnam, Phil McArthur, Diana Smith), Reading the Room (David Kantor), Iris Bagwell, Difficult Conversations (Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton, and Sheila Heen) Fierce Conversations (Susan Scott), Edward Schein, Radical Candor (Kim Scott); How the Way We Talk Can Change the Way We Work (Kegan/Lahey), Discussing the Undiscussable (William Noonan) – to name a few.
[68] Monitor Company.
[69] Barbara L. Fredrickson, Love 2.0 Creating Happiness and Health in Moments of Connection (New York: Penguin, 2013).
[70] Diana Smith distinguishes between “surface culture” and “deep culture.” She describes eloquently how three primary drivers of culture (values, beliefs, assumptions; behavioral norms; and social arrangements) act at both levels. She also describes how deep culture is progressively formed and reinforced by formal design elements (an organization’s desired state: its mission, values, belief statements, strategies, structures, system and processes, rights, rewards, roles, and accountabilities), relational patterns (as people negotiate how to fill in the blanks, the patterns of interaction that emerge and take hold among people and groups) and a culture’s invisible core (as people observe patterns of interaction, how they infer the tacit values, beliefs, and norms that govern how things really work, guiding how they interpret events and take action as a collective).
[71] Barry-Wehmiller has achieved value-adding competitive advantage through its culture. CEO Bob Chapman writes,

  • “We’re in business so that all our team members can have meaningful and fulfilling lives…. I am obsessed with creating a culture in which all team members go home each day fulfilled.”
  • “Our primary metric is ‘The way we touch the lives of people.’”
  • “Of 74 acquisitions since 1987, 60 were of struggling companies. Our strategy allowed us to deliver over 16% compounded returns to our investors for over 16 years – a record of value creation that compares favorably to that of Berkshire Hathaway.”
  • “The magic key for unlocking the potential of the acquired companies lies in getting these businesses to change the way they think about and treat their people.”

Bob Chapman, Everybody Matters: The Extraordinary Power of Caring for Your People Like Family (Portfolio, 2015).
[72] Prendergast, In Touch, 9.
[73] Daniel Seigel. Pocket Guide to Interpersonal Neurobiology: An Integrative Handbook of the Mind (W.W. Norton & Company, 2012), 19-6 - 19-7.
[74] “Love is the momentary upwelling of three tightly interwoven events: first, a sharing of one or more positive emotions between you and another; second, a synchrony between your and the other person's biochemistry and behaviors; and third, a reflected motive to invest in each other's well-being that brings mutual care.… Love is an emotion, a momentary state that arises to infuse your mind and body alike. Love is connection. Love unfolds and reverberates between and among people within interpersonal interactions.” Fredrickson, Love 2.0., Chapter 2.
[75] Fredrickson, Love 2.0., Chapter 2.
[76] Fredrickson, Love 2.0., 15-19.
[77] Your vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve) is the key conduit that connects your brain to your body, your brain to your heart. ...The strength of your vagus nerve (i.e., aptitude for love) can be measured by tracking your heart rate in conjunction with your breathing rate. (Vagal tone = the degree to which your heart rate is patterned by your breathing rate.) Measured at rest, vagal tone tends to be extraordinarily stable over time. The higher your vagal tone, the better. Those with higher vagal tone experience more moments of positive resonance (love) in their daily lives. Fredrickson, Love 2.0., 53, 56.
[78] Fredrickson, Love 2.0., 57-58.
[79] Fredrickson, Love 2.0., 55.
[80] Oxytocin is the brain chemical that is released during moments of pleasure and creates a sense of well-being. “Oxytocin is a powerful hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It regulates social interaction and sexual reproduction, playing a role in behaviors from maternal-infant bonding and milk release to empathy, generosity, and orgasm. When we hug or kiss a loved one, oxytocin levels increase; hence, oxytocin is often called "the love hormone." In fact, the hormone plays a huge role in all pair bonding. The hormone is greatly stimulated during sex, birth, and breastfeeding. Oxytocin is the hormone that underlies trust. It is also an antidote to depressive feelings. For all its positivity, however, oxytocin has a dark side. Or, more accurately, it plays a more complex role in human behavior than is commonly thought. As a facilitator of bonding among those who share similar characteristics, the hormone fosters distinctions between in-group and out-group members, and sets in motion favoritism toward in-group members and prejudice against those in out-groups. Ongoing research on the hormone is a potent reminder of the complexity of biological and psychological systems.” Psychology Today.
[81] Additionally, “having a sense of higher purpose stimulates oxytocin production, as does trust. Trust and purpose then mutually reinforce each other, providing a mechanism for extended oxytocin release, which produces happiness. So, joy on the job comes from doing purpose-driven work with a trusted team.”
[82] Paul J. Zak, Harvard Business Review. “The Neuroscience of Trust.” Jan-Feb 2017. Page 85.
[83] Jack Kornfield is an exemplar of a “big stage” presenter who is skilled at “increasing the oxytocin in the room” so that audience members can reflect, learn and grow. He does this through storytelling, “seeing” those who share, and thanking them.
[84] “Learning to trust the heart’s power of knowing becomes an important capacity in our complex and confusing times; it is a faculty referred to sometime as ‘moral imagination.’ Here the moral is no code of laws and behavior but the sense of what within us connects with the forces that lead towards the good. Gaining confidence to approach these latent forces is akin to drawing close to the Christmas Child lying before us in the crib of straw. Here we find the sudden soul clarity that grounds our basis for knowing, of connecting with what belongs to Life, Light and Truth." Alan Thewless (Who is, in his heart informed by Anthroposophy and Rudolf Steiner) via Michele LaCroix.
[85] Amanda Blake, Your Body is Your Brain: Leverage Your Somatic Intelligence to Find Purpose, Build Resilience, Deepen Relationships and Lead More Powerfully. (Trokay, 2018), 7.
[86] Read works by Richard Strozzi-Heckler(The Leadership Dojo, The Art of Somatic Coaching), Doug Silsbee (The Mindful Coach, Presence-Based Coaching, and Presence-Based Leadership), Amanda Blake (Your Body is Your Brain) and other expert in the art of Somatic Coaching and Embodied Transformation, to learn more.
[87] Developed originally by Reg Revans. Revan, R. The origin and growth of action learning. Brickley, UK Chartwell-Bratt (1982).
[88] H. Skipton Leonard & Michael J. Marquardt (2010) The Evidence for the Effectiveness of Action learning, Action Learning: Research and Practice," 7:2, 121-136, DOI: 10.1080/14767333.2010.488323.
[89] (Leonard & Marquardt 2010) Abstract: For the past 50 years, organizations and individuals around the world have reported success in their use of action learning programs to solve problems, develop leaders, build teams and transform their corporate cultures. However, very little rigorous research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of action learning. The authors reviewed 21 refereed articles, theses and dissertations that quantitatively and/or qualitatively measured the impact of action learning and to determine the success factors in action learning programs. The evidence elicited from these studies support the following: (1) action learning develops broad executive and managerial leadership skills, particularly collaborative leadership and coaching skills; (2) action learning improves the ability of managers to develop integrative, win/win solutions to conflict situations; (3) governing variables that were consistently identified as critical to the success of action learning include questioning, taking action, learning from group members, listening, group diversity, feelings of confidence and well-being, safe environment, and the presence of a coach; and (4) significant factors for conducting successful action learning programs involved: (1) team-level processes of skilled coaching, diversity, self-directed team processes, effective team presentations and review of team processes; as well as (2) organization-level processes of ensuring implementation of solutions, alignment and importance of the problem, support of top decision makers and the leveraging of organizational resources.
[90] According to Wikipedia, rapid prototyping is defined as group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data.
[91] Source???
[93] How controlled breathing may promote healing remains a source of scientific study. Consciously changing the way you breathe appears to send a signal to the brain to adjust the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system, which can slow heart rate and digestion and promote feelings of calm as well as the sympathetic system, which controls the release of stress hormones like cortisol. Many maladies, such as anxiety and depression are aggravated or triggered by stress.
[94] Belisa Vranich, Breathe. (The Breathing Class Press, 201).
[95] Dr. Richard Brown and Dr. Patricia Gerbarg The Healing Power of the Breath: Simple Techniques to Reduce Stress and Anxiety, Enhance Concentration, and Balance Your Emotions (Shambhala, 2012). Columbia University.
[96] Lesley Alderman, "Breath. Exhale. Repeat. Controlled Breathing, an Ancient Practice Can Reduce Stress and Soothe your Body." New York Times. November 9, 2016.
[97] A small study by Dr. Chris Streeter at Boston University showed that “a behavioral intervention can have effects of similar magnitude as an antidepressant.” “After 12 weeks of daily yoga and coherent breathing, the subjects’ depressive symptoms significantly decreased and their levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, a brain chemical that has calming and anti-anxiety effects, had increased.”
[98] Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina also found that controlled breathing may affect the immune system. The study of 20 healthy adults compared two groups – one that did two sets of ten-minute breathing exercises and the other that read for 20 minutes. The results showed that the group who did the breathing exercises had significantly lower levels of three cytokines that are associated with inflammation and stress in their saliva.
[99] BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. August, 2016.
[100] Siegel, Pocket Guide to Interpersonal Neurobiology. 11-2 – 11-3.
[101] Siegel, Pocket Guide to Interpersonal Neurobiology. 23-3.
[102] Craig Lambert, The Psyche on Automatic: Amy Cuddy on snap judgements, stereotypes, and the postures of power (Harvard Magazine. November-December 2010), 51.
[103] Her research of 42 male and female subjects showed that even two minutes in high or low-power postures caused the participants’ dominance/power hormone testosterone to rise and the stress hormone cortisol to decrease (and vice versa). Those in high-power stances were more likely to gamble (i.e., take risk) and reported feeling more powerful.
[104] Amy Cuddy, Dana R. Carney, Andy J. Yap. Psychological Science.
[105] Daniel Pink, in Drive: The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us, proves that “if/then” rewards work really well for tasks that are routine, rule-based work, with single solutions because rewards narrow focus and concentrate the mind. Whereas, if/then rewards do not work for problem-solving when the solutions are not obvious. In these cases, what truly motivates is autonomy, mastery and purpose. Daniel Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (Riverhead Books, 2009).
[106] Kenneth Themes, in Intrinsic Motivation of Work 2009, demonstrates that what drives employee engagement are intrinsic rewards: meaningfulness, choice, competence and progression.
[107] See “Distortions and Deceptions in Strategic Decisions” to read more about incentives can influence “the principle agency problem” and what corporations can do about it. Dan P. Lovallo and Olivier Sibony. McKinsey Quarterly. February 2006. Also see Michael C. Jensen and William H. Meckling, “Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs, and Ownership Structure.” In Michael C. Jensen, “A Theory of The Firm: Governance, Residual Claims, and Organizational Forms.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
[108] At the team level, these same human-determined formal design elements operate at a smaller scale. For example, to support performance, team members should have a clear sense of their role and responsibilities (i.e., why they are on the team) and incentives should be aligned, so team members are not rewarded for working at cross purposes.
[109] Rigby, Sutherland, and Noble. Agile at Scale: How to Go From a Few Teams to Hundreds. Harvard Business Review. May-June 2018.
[110] The classical theories of motivation were developed in the 1950s, and include Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, Herzberg’s Two factor Theory, and Theory X and Theory Y. More contemporary theories of motivation that are empirically supported include: ERG Theory; McClelland’s Theory of Needs; Goal Setting Theory; Reinforcement Theory; Equity; Theory of Motivation; and Expectancy Theory of Motivation.
[111] Pink, Drive.
[112] Kenneth Themes, Intrinsic Motivation of Work 2009.
[113] Theresa Amabile and Steven J. Kramer, The Power of Small Wins. Harvard Business Review. May 2011.
[114] Diana Smith? David Kantor?
[115] David Kantor, Reading the Room: Group Dynamics for Coaches and Leaders (Jossey-Bass, 2012).
[116] Add the five structures.
[117] Individual Leaders can understand their relative propensity for action, ideas, and connection by taking the Kantor Behavioral Propensity Profile assessment.
[118] Daniel Siegel, Mindsight: The New Science of Personal Transformation (New York: Bantam, 2010).
[119] Tolle, The Power of Now, 13.
[120] Prendergast, In Touch, xv.
[121] He also speaks to what can get in the way (I summarize): People often mistakenly anchor their lives in things other than the core: money; material possessions; other’s praise, respect or admiration; status, fame, celebrity; even reason, morality, conscience, freedom and virtue. Many things can distort, subordinate or eclipse our deep inward sense of knowing: strong emotional experiences; strong personalities; repeated violations of our own conscience; and subcultures (e.g., families, gangs).
[122] Stephen R. Covey. Seven The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change. (Simon & Schuster, 1989).
[123] Coaches Rising Audio Interview. Oct 2016.
[124] NA
[125] Dan Siegel defines integration as the linkage of differentiated arts. An integrated system is F.A.C.E.S. Daniel Siegel, The Mindful Therapist: A Clinician's Guide to Mindsight and Neural Integration. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010), 80.
[126] “The River of Chaos and Rigidity.” Siegel, Mindsight.
[127] Thomas Huble identifies three levels of consciousness that constitute our “core.” Our conscious is what we currently are aware of and how our thoughts consciously drive our actions. Our unconscious includes the forces we are unaware of, often shaped by our earlier experiences, that drive our habitual reactions. This includes the ways leaders get in their own way / inadvertently contribute to the very results that are frustrating them. Making unconscious, conscious is a powerful way to expand leadership’s repertoire of strategies and increase the field of perception. Through “shadow work” (i.e., illuminating the unconscious forces, narratives, experiences that cause us to “react” instead of “respond” – to increase the “moment between external stimuli and response” so we can choose from an increased array of options (respond instead of just react). Healing “trauma” that are source of our blind spots. “Trauma” = fragmentation, broken-ness, aspects that are being obscured or submerged, break in the flow. (Be grateful for what you can see and for what you cannot.) Healing = restoration of the flow, wholeness. Include and transcend. Re-integration of hyper-regulation through co-regulation, to achieve healthy self-regulation. Superconscious is a higher level of creative process and by learning to open to higher levels of consciousness we can learn to access these.
[128] F. Scott Fitzgerald. “The Crack Up.” 1936.
[129] Physical resilience is physical flexibility, endurance and strength. Emotional resilience is the ability to self-regulate and your levels of emotional flexibility, positive outlook and supportive relationships. Mental resilience is your ability to sustain focus and attention, mental flexibility and the capacity for integrating multiple points of view. Spiritual resilience is your commitment to core values, intuition and tolerance of others’ values and beliefs. Source???
[130] Jon Kabat-Zinn defines mindfulness as “the awareness that arises by paying attention, on purpose, in the present moment, non-judgmentally.” Jon Kabat-Zinn, Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life (Hatchette Books, 2005).
[131] Doug Silsbee’s framework, the Awareness Map, identifies each of these domains of sensory experience and helps individuals reflect and explore each, as a way of differentiating and discerning the experience within each.
[132] Prendergast, In Touch, xv, xvi.
[133] Prendergast, In Touch, xxii.
[135] I will distinguish the being meta competency from Being, the unlimited source of creativity, love, peace and joy, through the use of lower case “b” and higher case “B.”
[136] Integrated from Thomas Huebl’s course: Living Meditation: Embodying the Sacred. Session Four; 5:00. January 13, 2019.
[137] Thomas Huebl calls intuition “when I become aware of information in the field” and inspiration as “a shot of the future comes through.” Thomas Huebl Living Meditation: Embodying the Sacred. Session One; 1:00. October 14, 2018.
[138] Thomas Huebl’s course: Living Meditation: Embodying the Sacred.
[139] Integrated from Thomas Huebl’s course: Living Meditation: Embodying the Sacred. Session Four; 5:00. January 13, 2019.
[140] Humanity’s Team Virtual Course on Trauma
[141] Integrated from Thomas Huebl’s course: Living Meditation: Embodying the Sacred.
[142] Tolle. The Power of Now, 13.
[143] Prendergast, In Touch, xix.
[144] Tolle. The Power of Now, 13.
[145] Thomas Huebl Living Meditation: Embodying the Sacred. Session One; 59:00. October 14, 2018.
[146] Thomas Huebl’s course: Living Meditation: Embodying the Sacred.
[147] Tolle. The Power of Now, 27.
[148] Tolle. The Power of Now, 110.
[149] Tolle. The Power of Now, 55.
[150] Tolle. The Power of Now, 41.
[151] Doug Silsbee
[152] Bob Keagan. Theory of Adult Development. 1982, 1994.
[153] Chris Argyris
[154] Jon Kabat-Zinn
[155] Daniel Siegel
[156] At its simplest, reflection is about careful thought. But the kind of reflection that is really valuable to leaders is more nuanced than that. The most useful reflection involves the conscious consideration and analysis of beliefs and actions for the purpose of learning. Reflection gives the brain an opportunity to pause amidst the chaos, untangle and sort through observations and experiences, consider multiple possible interpretations, and create meaning. This meaning becomes learning, which can then inform future mindsets and actions. For leaders, this “meaning making” is crucial to their ongoing growth and development. Research by Giada di Stefano, Francesca Gino, Gary Pisano, and Bradley Staats in call centers demonstrated that employees who spent 15 minutes at the end of the day reflecting about lessons learned performed 23% better after 10 days than those who did not reflect. A study of UK commuters found a similar result when those who were prompted to use their commute to think about and plan for their day were happier, more productive, and less burned out than people who didn’t. (Boda Group Blog)
[157] Chris Argyris
[158] Bob Keagan. Theory of Adult Development. 1982, 1994.
[159] Literally, imagine placing these things on the palm of your hand, and holding them out in front of you, as something separate from you that you can examine, evaluate and shift.
[160] Bob Keagan and Lisa Leahy,Immunity to Change: How to Overcome It and Unlock the Potential in Yourself and Your Organization (Harvard Business Press, 2009).
[161] Kantor, Reading the Room.
[162] Michele LaCroix
[163] Diana Smith.
[164] Dan Siegel’s Wheel of Awareness. The hub of the wheel represents awareness itself. The rim of the wheel represents anything (i.e., data points) of which you can be aware. There are four quadrants representing 8 senses. Quadrant 1 represents the five senses. Quadrant 2 represents the 6th sense -- enteroception, the internal bodily sensations (e.g., physiology, chakras, internal organs, etc.) or “the wisdom of the body.” Quadrant 3 represents the 7th sense -- mental activity such as thoughts, feelings, memories, images, beliefs, attitudes, hopes, dreams, desires. Quadrant 4 represents the 8th sense, the domain of relationships (me/thee/we). Focusing awareness on each quadrant enables you to operate from the Hub of awareness, and thus be aware of awareness, itself.
[165] 2x2 exercise. Choose two polarities and explore: Desire for x; Fear of x; Desire for Opposite of x; Fear of Opposite of x. How do I know that desire or fear? What words, phrases or narratives come to mind? What emotions, thoughts, states of mind, memories, dreams emerge? How do I feel about each quadrant? Emotionally? In my body? How does it look for me? Why do I desire/fear that thing? What is my motivation? What word describes the balance-point / equilibrium between the two polarities? Imagine an infinity sign with the polarities at the outer edges and the balance point in the middle. Leslie Temple Thurston. Marriage of Spirit: Enlightened Living in Today’s World. (Corelight, 2000).
[167] First 6 bullets are from Dan Siegel. Others are mine.
[168] This notion is rooted in the Buddhist idea of The Eightfold Path, which consists of eight practices: right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right samadhi('meditative absorption or union'). Wikipedia.
[169] Thomas Huebl Living Meditation: Embodying the Sacred. Session One; 1:00. October 14, 2018
[170] Eckhart Tolle. The Power of Now. Page 17.
[171] Eckhart Tolle. The Power of Now. Page 98.
[172] Source? Thomas???
[173] Barry Johnson coined the phrase “polarity thinking” and brought this idea into the management mainstream. The idea of polarities long existed in ancient wisdom traditions.
[174] Merriam Webster defines empathy as “the action of understanding, being aware of, being sensitive to, and vicariously experiencing the feelings, thoughts, and experience of another of either the past or present without having the feelings, thoughts, and experience fully communicated in an objectively explicit manner; also, the capacity for this”
[175] Doug Silsbee says: The way that we see/do/be co-arises, as each affects the others dynamically. Our habit nature and conditioned responses will rule unless we increase our awareness, demonstrate choice of where we place our attention, harvest our own inner resourcefulness to find alternative paths/responses, and practice using those paths to lay new, more productive neural pathways to build new habits.
[176] Maybe weave in Daniel Goleman’s article from Focus
[177] Fredrickson, Love 2.0., Chapter 4.
[178] Prendargast, In Touch.
[179] Google, Chade Meng Tan
[180] Amy Fox in interview by Joel Monk, Coaches Rising. April, 2020.
[181] Source???
[182] Prendergast, In Touch, 99, 170, 122, 138, 155.
[183] We are talking about “Curricular,” “Adaptive” “Transformational” shifts in leadership capabilities, as compared to “Project,” “Technical” “Informational” improvements (Source: Silsbee, Kegan, Garvey Berger, respectively).
[184] Perceptive states / generative, creative states / resilient states / open states – all different expressions for a similar state. Components: safe, centered, attuned, inspired (?) Also connected to Dan Siegel’s F.A.C.E.S.
[185] The joke goes: Two fish swim past each other. One says to the other, “How’s the water?” The other one replies, “What is water?” This joke signifies that we can be blind to the most defining elements of our experience, because they are so familiar. We assume them to be the only possibility, rather than something specific and different, among multiple possible experiences.
[186] Paraphrased from Doug Silsbee interview. Coaches Rising. 2016.
[187] Recent research published by Duke University shows how specific mindsets can drive higher quality results and these mindsets can be learned. This research demonstrates how “Intellectual humility” (a mindset) drives inquiry and participative processes, which drives higher quality decision-making by leaders. By "intellectual humility," they roughly mean open-mindedness, where people can have strong beliefs, but recognize their fallibility and are willing to be proven wrong on matters large and small. Very similar to "strong ideas, loosely held." In a nutshell, people who displayed intellectual humility also did a better job evaluating the quality of evidence. Furthermore, intellectual humility is a quality that can be encouraged and taught.
[188] ???Dan Siegel? Barbara Fredrickson?
[189] Adapted from Richard Strozzi-Heckler
[190] Preconditions (or “readiness factors”) for leadership development include: leadership has an awareness and desire to change; the scale of the change is identified (i.e., individual leader, relationship, team, organization, etc.); the desired outcomes are identified; and a hypothesis about the root challenges/opportunities has been formulated.
[191] Peter Senge. Forester MIT…
[192] See other blogs for a fuller description of the meta competencies at the team and enterprise leadership levels that can be used as a springboard for inquiry.
[193] A “5 Whys” line of inquiry, probing the three drivers of leadership (i.e., ideas, action, and relationships) will help “locate” the root cause of the challenge and opportunities. 5 Whys is an iterative interrogative technique used to explore the cause-and-effect relationships underlying a particular problem. The primary goal of the technique is to determine the root cause of a defect or problem by repeating the question "Why?" Each answer forms the basis of the next question. The "5" in the name derives from an anecdotal observation on the number of iterations needed to resolve the problem. The technique was formally developed by Sakichi Toyoda and was used within the Toyota Motor Corporation during the evolution of its manufacturing methodologies. Wikipedia.
[194] Ronald Heifetz, Alexander Grashow, Marty Linksy. The Practice of Adaptive Leadership: Tools and Tactics for Changing Your Organization and the World. (Harvard Business Press, 2009), 19.
[195] Tom Kenyon. Cats and Dogs.
[196] Find source. Dan Siegel?
[197] Chris Argyris, Donal Shon, Action Design (Bob Putnam, Phil McArthur, Diana Smith)
[198] Chris Argyris, Donal Shon, Action Design (Bob Putnam, Phil McArthur, Diana Smith)
[199] Doug Silsbee.
[200] Barbara Fredrickson.
[201] Doug Silsbee.
[202] Carla Shatz coined this phrase to summarize Hebb’s law.
[203] Siegel, Pocket Guide to Neurobiology, 9-4, 9-5.
[204] Siegel, Pocket Guide to Neurobiology, AI-53.
[205] I use a “Best Self” model of intervention, in which I help leadership reach its potential – achieving life’s purpose / their “highest and best” good.” I do this by helping to achieve the results that matter most. I help leadership become aware of strengths, weaknesses, challenges, and opportunities. With awareness of strengths, leadership understands how and when it is most effective, so it can “do what works, more” and seek contexts that asymmetrically benefit from the thing it does particularly well. With awareness of its weaknesses, it can seek support or learning. With awareness of its patterns (why do what do, whether conscious or not, what it gets /does not get), leadership can explore whether there are better, more effective solutions to the problems that get more or at lower cost. Thus, I help leadership see what it does /when/why; develop new, more effective strategies; practice; reflect; repeat.
[206] Deborah Rowland in “Why Leadership Development Isn’t Developing Leaders” (HBR 10/14/2016) identifies “four factors that lie at the heart of good, practical leadership: making it experiential; influencing participants’ ‘being’ not just their ‘doing;’ placing it into a wider, systemic context; and enrolling faculty who act less like experts and more like Sherpas” (i.e., experienced guides who carry half the weight). Notice that 3 of the meta competencies (do; be; see) are evoked both directly and indirectly.
[207] Siegel, Pocket Guide to Neurobiology, AI-53.
[208] Source? Study?
[209] Diana Smith calls a trigger a “clash between our context and our mental models.”
[210] David Kantor.
[211] Viktor Frankl was an Austrian neurologist and psychologist. He was also a holocaust survivor. In Man’s Search for Meaning he chronicles the horrific experiences of being in a concentration camp. Most importantly, however, he notices that the people he observes during this experience respond in a variety of ways to these horrific experiences. This observation leads him to the insight that the essence of being human is freedom – specifically, the freedom to choose how we respond to any external stimulus.
[212] See other blog for a beautiful articulation by Doug Silsbee of how our triggers are related to “embodied transformation.”
[213] Dan Siegel? Find source.
[214] Through mindfulness practices, such as the Wheel of Awareness, we can increase the conscious awareness of our experience. This increases our ability to become alert, before we get hijacked, and avoid chaotic sloppiness and categorical rigidness of thinking. Dan Siegel advises, “To stay F.A.C.E.S., use observation (watch your own internal processes); objectivity (I am the Hub, not the data on the rim); and Openness (accept what is; let it be).” Thus, we retrain our mind to focus our attention elsewhere altogether or to re-interpret / re-frame our narrative and experience.
[215] Jack Kornfield recommends an approach represented by the acronym R.A.I.N.: Recognizing (“that hurts, I am afraid, I am angry”); Acceptance (settle, be present to experience it, don’t have to be afraid – it is already there. “Oh, there is fear.”); Investigation (“What is it? Curious about the direct experience, moment-to-moment changes, waves, impermanence of it; in the body; thought structures); Not identifying (it’s not who I am; depersonalize it; become more alive, present, connected by not letting it define you. (Radical acceptance: “I’m only Jewish on my parents’ side.”) “You can’t stop the waves, but you can learn to surf.” Capacity to stay serene amidst all experience. “Those thoughts do not have your best interests in mind. Acknowledge them, but choose others, by re-directing your thoughts. “Substitute a skillful thought with an unhappy thought.”
[216] To become aware of the patterns in your behavior, pay particular attention to the situations in which you do not get the results you want. Specifically, reflect to understand “In what situations, do I tend to act in what ways that generates what undesirable results?” Be curious about what commonalities these situations share (person involved, topic of conversation, context, etc.). How are you thinking or feeling? How do you tend to act? What kind of results do you usually achieve?
[217] For technical changes, where the solutions and know-how already exist (but still may need to learned), the process is challenging and takes time. However, adaptive change, where challenges can only be addressed through changes in people’s mindsets and habits, requires deeper shifts that take more time, effort, and commitment to achieve sustained change.
[218] While addressing organizational “change management” is outside the scope of this expose, the Performance Prism offers a quick and dirty checklist. When engaging a team, group or organization in change, are the following key elements in place?

  • Envision – the Strategic Intent: Is the “from-to” vision clear? Are the desired goals and outcomes clear? Is there a compelling strategy for achieving these goals and outcomes? This establishes the “What” and “Why” of the change.
  • Enact – the Workplan: What are the “campaigns” that need to be executed? Is there a clear game plan for each? The addresses the “How,” “Who”, and “When” of the change.
  • Enroll – Communication / Stakeholder Engagement: Who are the critical stakeholders? Who needs to be involved in what ways? What is the communication plan that accompanies the action plan?
    The most common error is to underinvest in enrollment of key stakeholders, including an under estimation of what individual players require to understand, implement and sustain the desired change.
    [219] The 5 Whys is a technique used in the Analyze phase of the Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) methodology. ... By repeatedly asking the question “Why” (five is a good rule of thumb), you can peel away the layers of symptoms which can lead to the root cause of a problem.
    [220] For example, imagine a team in which frustration among team members is high and level of trust is low. At first examination, this presents as a “relationship” challenge, situated in the “enrollment” domain of the Performance Prism. However, deeper analysis of the relationship challenges may illuminate root causes that originate in the “envision” or “enact” or “enroll” domains. For example, the friction between team members could be caused by
  • Organizational architectural issues such as overlapping roles or misaligned incentives (Enact)
  • Confusion about the goals or strategy for achieving them (Envision)
  • Triggering behaviors or conflicting values (Enroll)
    Depending on the root cause, a different solution should be employed. Thus, the most important part of “Mapping the Territory” is accurately identifying the root causes and most effective approaches to address them.
    [221] I use the term “advisor” rather than “coach” purposefully.
    [222] Research (reported by the Boda Group, Sept 16, 2020) shows that working with an executive coach can enhance performance.
  • Stress activates the sympathetic nervous system, which makes leaders less creative, less competent with complex tasks, less able to see options and different perspectives, and less empathetic. In contrast, coaching activates both the empathetic network of the brain, which enables leaders to be more perceptive of others and to think about moral considerations, and also the lateral visual cortex, the part of the brain that controls imagination and creativity.
  • Research by John Paul Stephens, Kathy Kram, and Wendy Murphy shows that working with an experienced coach results in leaders feeling uplifted, energetic, resilient, cared for, and open to learning and change.
  • Research published in the Consulting Psychology Journal studied 85 senior banking leaders and found that, after working with coaches, the leaders' emotional and social intelligence competencies, vision, work engagement, and career satisfaction all increased significantly.
  • And finally, Richard Boyatzis at Case Western Reserve University and colleagues studied the impact of coaching over time and found that working with a coach led to a 54-61% increase in emotional and social intelligence competencies that lasted 3-7 years after the coaching was completed. In comparison, corporate training led to just an 11% improvement that lasted only 0.25-1.5 years.

[223] This model bridges three tiers of “coaching” that are often spoken of as mutually exclusive: “Performance Coaching,” “Transformational Coaching,” and “Process Coaching.” Using the Performance Prism, the Neutral Witness, the meta competencies, the cycles of change, and the being meta competency as a gateway to a greater Being, these kinds of coaching are integrated, iterative, and mutually reinforcing in leadership’s journey of development and performance.
[224] Prendergast, In Touch, 176.
[225] Erica Ariel Fox, Winning from Within: A Breakthrough Method for Leading, Living, and Lasting Change. (Harper Business, 2013).
[226] Richard Schwartz has pioneered the Internal Family Systems Therapy approach that encourages clients to first become aware of and then befriend different “parts” of themselves, ultimately from a place of Self (being), characterized by eight words that start with the letter “c” (confident, courageous, curious, connected, confident, clear, calm, creative). This framework is rooted in psychology and helps clients integrate and embrace the multiplicity of internal voices that develop over time, often in response to trauma.
[227] Heifetz, R., Grashow, A., & Linsky
[228] Robert Greenleaf
[229] Thomas Huebl. Healing Collective Trauma Series. 2020.
[230] Studies of actual social networks show that happiness – and depression – can spread through whole communities.
[231] Fredrickson, Love 2.0., 86-87.
[232] Siegel, Mindsight, 167.
[233] Thomas Huebl.
[234] Research from the Center for Creative Leadership shows that executives with high empathy are better able to keep employees engaged, while employees with empathy provide customers with the very best experience. Find research.
[235] Research from The University of Toronto Rotman School of Management shows that being able to read and mobilize informal networks needed to catalyze change matters more than position in the organizational hierarchy in being a “change maker.” Find research.
[236] 4 Domains and 12 Competencies of EI (Daniel Goleman post: Emotionally Intelligent: How Competent Are You? 9/17/16. Provides descriptions of 12 Emotional Intelligence Competencies.)
[237] 2011. Diana McLean Smith.
[238] The Art of Somatic Coaching. Richard Strozzi-Heckler, Ph.D. First published in the January/February 2014 issue of HUMAN RESOURCES magazine that Thomson Reuters publishes in Hong Kong.
[239] Individual Leaders can understand their relative propensity for action, ideas, and connection by taking the Kantor Behavioral Propensity Profile assessment.
[240] Leslie Temple Thurston. Marriage of Spirit: Enlightened Living in Today’s World. (Corelight, 2000), 189-201.
[241] Doug Silsbee encourages clients to frame the change in terms of a “commitment” the client wants to make and work toward, during the engagement.
[242] Jennifer Garvey Berger.
[243] The Kantor Propensity Profile instrument can be found on the Kantor Institute website:
[244] In order to expand their own lens with which they see the world, advisors can actively seek new ways of viewing the world. An expanded repertoire of frameworks increases the range of models they can suggest to the client.
[245] Advisory work is fundamentally conversational and one important aspect of how the advisor “does” its work is the balance of advocacy and inquiry, in service of client development. An advisor uses inquiry to: understand where the client is, what is wanting their attention, what is possible, what is challenging, check, get reactions, clarify, deepen, probe, explore or challenge assumptions, broaden, invite challenge – especially after sharing observations, perspectives, mental model, a point of view, and stimulate reflection. The advisor uses advocacy to check understanding (paraphrase), mirror, share an observation, perspective, point of view, pattern recognition, educate, guide, validate, offer insights from your own experience, offer perspective, and offer encouragement.
[246] Being in “right relationship” to the client change agenda requires meeting the client where they are, as they are. An advisor is a catalyst for client learning and development, as sought by the client. The client stays in driver seat, modulating speed and direction; the advisor is a guide, who can provide perspective, help the client navigate, and provide a catalyzing cocktail of challenge and support. Fundamentally, the client’s journey is one of self-discovery. Seeing the client as whole, not broken, the advisor seeks to catalyze the emergence of their truth, wisdom, and best self, not “fix” the client. The “best self” approach embraces this dream: “Imagine if everyone woke up and loved going to work, thriving because they felt as if they were acting from their best selves, to pursue their highest good.
[247] As reported by Dr. Michael Baime, clinical associate professor at the University of Pennsylvania. “This is Your Brain on Mindfulness.” Shambhala Sun. July 2011. Page 45.
[248] Ibid.
[249] Ibid.
[250] Ibid.
[251] Fredrickson, Love 2.0., 57.
[252] Michael de Manincor, Psychologist, Director of Yoga Institute.
[253] Dr. Mithu Storoni, Neuro-ophthalmologist. As recorded on The Science Behind Yoga.
[254] Mindfulness practice can include meditation, yoga, or other athletic or artistic activities that enable you to be fully present or “in the zone.” This video shows the science behind why yoga as a mindfulness practice works. Notice that the linkages to the four meta competencies.
[255] Dan Siegel.
[256] Vranich, Breathe.
[257] Brown and Gerbarg, The Healing Power of Breath.
[258] David Drake.
[259] Daniel Siegel’s research confirms that “Attunement builds on itself, and practicing internal attunement makes us more likely to be empathetically attuned to others. That is why taking time to focus attention on the inner experience in the moment actually also makes us more sensitive to the inner life of others. Internal attunement and interpersonal attunement can mutually reinforce one another.” Siegel, Pocket Guide to Neurobiology, 23-2.

© 2021 Carolyn Volpe Cunningham